The U.S. 政府是基于有限政府的理念, 包括自然权利, popular sovereignty, republicanism, and social contract.
Terms You Learn
3. Magna Carta
6. Common Law
7. House of Burgesses
8. Mayflower Compact
10. Direct Democracy
13. American Revolution
17. Intolerable Acts
22. John Locke
23. Thomas Jefferson
25. Virginia Plan
26. New Jersey Plan
28. Shay's Rebellion
Chapter One Notes
而开国元勋们很聪明, 他们并没有发明宪法中所有伟大的思想. Like any good inventor they took a look at the past and were influenced by ideas that did and did not work. For instance, 他们对有限行政部门的主要灵感来源之一来自《买球app软件》. The Magna Carta 早在美国存在之前就已经写好了吗, but the ideas in it, 影响了政府有限权力的思想, rights of citizens, 法律上的平等待遇以及陪审团审判的权利. 《买球app软件》来自英国. 英国人厌倦了在糟糕的君主政体下的多年统治. A monarchy 是由一个国王或皇室统治，权力通常是代代相传的吗. In 1215, 约翰国王对反抗并迫使国王签署《买球app软件》的英国人民很不好, 一项同意上述观点的协议.
Another British idea that the founding fathers copied from was a law making body made up of citizens that was created during the reign of King Henry III, called Parliament. Parliament was legislature, or law making body of citizens that at first had very limited power but eventually became nearly as powerful as the king. Not only did the founding fathers like the idea of law making body of citizens (which they will call Congress), but they also liked the idea that it would be a way to limit power being in the hands of one person or group of people. 1689年，在经历了又一次可恶又卑鄙的君主统治之后，国会建立了 英国人权法案, which specifically wrote out the rights of British citizens and what protections they had from a potentially mean future king. 英国的《买球软件app》中提到了公平审判和个人自由, 150多年后，开国元勋们将这些理念写入了我们的《买球软件app》.
在英国人权法案之前, 当时英国没有成文法，所以法庭都是按惯例行事 precedent或基于先前类似案件的裁决. 如果有人被指控并被判偷马罪, they would simply refer to a previous court ruling that involved horse stealing and copy whatever they had done in that case. 这样一种基于习惯和先例的制度被称为 common law.
当英国殖民者来到新大陆，在詹姆斯敦建立永久定居点时, 他们有一个艰难的开始，因为他们没有什么组织. 最后他们想出了一个点子 assembly即制定法律和政策的一组政府领导人，他们称这次会议为 House of Burgesses. 这是第一个由殖民地公民选举产生的立法议会(22名成员)。.
在詹姆斯敦以北几百英里的地方, the Mayflower, 一艘从英国来的载着清教徒的船, 想要逃离宗教迫害的人. 抵达普利茅斯, the Pilgrims were familiar with the problems that the settlers of Jamestown had when they first landed so they decided to create a written agreement of things would be governed, 在离开这艘船之前.
船上的每个人都签了名 Mayflower Compact这是一份为了殖民地利益而制定的协议和一系列法律. 这成为美国第一份书面的政府计划. It also set up a direct democracy, 也就是当人们自己(在这种情况下只有男性), 直接就议题投票, laws, and etc. 因此，殖民地的第一个书面政府从第一天起就是一个民主政府.
随着时间的推移，美国在殖民地开始创造自己的美国文化, 和英国很不一样. 从17世纪初普利茅斯和詹姆斯敦的定居到1760年, the British government had really been kind of hands off or out of the picture (it was busy fighting European wars most of the time), 但是在1760年左右, it decided that it better start to govern the colonies more strictly which did not make the colonists very happy. 它所做的一件事就是加强重商主义的经济体系. Mercantilism is where a colony must trade everything with its mother country (England in this case) and can only trade with another country with the king's permission. It also said that the colonies couldn't charge England tariffs on imported goods but had to on goods imported from other places which made English made items cheaper.
1763年法印战争结束后, the British began taxing the Americans in order to pay for what was an expensive war to fight against the French and Indians. 他们从印花税法案开始, 对所有在殖民地生产和运输的纸制品征税. 这激怒了殖民者, 不是因为税收本身, 而是因为他们在议会中没有代表. 结果，殖民地居民抵制英国商品. In 1773, 议会制定了《买球软件app》，对除英国以外的所有茶叶征税, 这使得英国茶比美国茶更便宜. 这激怒了殖民者 so much they dumped millions of dollars of British tea into harbor at Boston. Again, the colonists were furious because the king refused to allow the Americans any representation in Parliament.
《买球软件app》之后是《买球软件app》(又称强制法案), which pretty much took all of the rights and freedoms away from citizens living in Boston and the surrounding area. For instance, now when a colonist was arrested they would be tried by a court made up of royal court officials and not other colonists. 他们没有接受审判的权利，殖民地议会也不允许开会. These acts angered the colonists enough that in 1774 they banded together with other colonies and sent representatives or delegates to discuss their future relationship and possible independence from England, 这次会议后来被称为 第一届大陆会议. 第一届大陆会议向英国国王提出了一系列要求, 乔治三世要求国王不要那么刻薄, 作为回应，他向殖民地派遣了更多的军队. 有了这个答复，殖民者开始准备战争.
最重要的文件是由 第一届大陆会议 《买球app软件》是由弗吉尼亚州的托马斯·杰斐逊撰写的吗. On July 4, 1776, the American colonies declared its independence and the American Revolution began. Jefferson got a lot of inspiration for his document from the Magna Carta and from an English philosopher named, John Locke. 骆家辉说，政府应该为人民服务, 而不是反过来, 如果政府违反了与公民的社会契约，违反了他们的 natural rights, which were life, liberty, 以及对财产的追求(后来改为幸福), 公民有权推翻政府，重新开始. 洛克认为 natural rights 权利是上帝赋予的，不能被政府拿走吗. 洛克鼓吹政府只在 consent “人民的”意思是得到人民的允许. 他说，政府得到他们的 authority 来自人民或公民.
美国殖民者在1940年与英国人作战 American Revolution 从1776年到1783年，当它最终以英国的失败而告终时，美国现在有了自己的国家. 革命的结束意味着殖民者现在是一个 sovereign 国家，或独立于外国统治. 在独立战争即将结束时，殖民地形成了 联邦条例, this was a loose alliance of the colonies (hereafter known as states) and was the first national government of the United States of America. The problem with it was that it DID NOT really give the government much power to actually do anything. The Articles 是为了建立一个统一的政府而写的吗, 但进展缓慢，因为大多数人担心，像央行这样的中央机构 Articles 可能会变得强大，然后他们会交易一个2岁的暴君,千里迢迢去找一个就在路边的人. Each state was basically like a small independent nation and the Articles only stepped in when states had disputes with one another.
《买球软件app》起了作用, even if it was too weak (it couldn't even enforce laws in the few rare cases that it could get all 13 colonies to pass one) because it had no enforcement branch of government. 这在……期间变得非常明显 Shaye's Rebellion when leader, Daniel Shaye, led a rebellion because many colonists in western Massachusetts were unhappy with taxes imposed by the state government on their property and businesses. 随着沙伊的叛乱蔓延到整个马萨诸塞州, 联邦条例下的国家政府, 不允许建立国家军队吗, 所以没有人来帮助马萨诸塞州镇压叛乱. 最后，其他州派出民兵部队帮助镇压叛乱. 沙伊的叛乱帮了大忙 开国元勋们意识到国家政府需要一些权力, especially in regards to an executive branch that could enforce law and order in the colonies when needed.
In May of 1787, James Madison and George Washington convinced the colonies to meet in Philadelphia to begin work creating government that would replace the 联邦条例 with a stronger government. Madison and Washington got the other colonies to show up by telling them they were only meeting to REVISE the Articles, when in fact, 他们一直都知道他们的目的是创造一些新的东西. 在非常秘密的大会期间, 来自殖民地的代表们就许多问题和政治思想进行了反复的争论.
他们同意创建一个 federal system of government, one where power is shared by different levels of government such as between the state and national government. 他们最终同意建立一个三权分立的政府, 一个是行政部门执行法律, 一个要求立法部门制定法律, and the judicial branch to interpret laws that were created to ensure they were not against the Constitution. 出现的最大问题之一是政府的立法部门如何, or Congress, would be laid out. 像弗吉尼亚这样的大州, 他建议国会中立法机构的数量应该以人口为基础, but the smaller states would not agree to this because it would put all the power in the hands of larger states. 这被称为 Virginia Plan. The smaller states, like New Jersey, said that the only way to be fair was if every state sent the same amount of representatives to Congress, this angered the larger states because they said that since they were larger they paid a larger share of taxes and should have more say. 这个计划被称为 New Jersey Plan. Eventually cooler heads prevailed a new plan was drawn up that created TWO houses in Congress: The first house, 众议院, 是否会根据人口来分配众议院的代表人数. 第二个议院，参议院，将从每个殖民地派出相同数量的代表。. 这个计划，叫做 康涅狄格妥协即“伟大妥协”，创建了2个议院， bicameral 立法部门(两院制=两院), thus making the larger states happy with the House of Representatives and the smaller states happy with the Senate.
Ratify - means to pass. 制宪会议批准了宪法.
Ratify - means to pass. 制宪会议批准了宪法.